ACCESS 45, Fall 2014

Phantom Trips

Adam Millard-Ball

Traffic lies at the heart of many fears about new urban development. In some cases, cities require developers to scale back housing or retail proposals to alleviate concerns about congestion. In other cases, cities widen roadways, add turn lanes, or lengthen signal cycles to accommodate projected traffic volumes. In both instances, planners and engineers wield considerable influence through their predictions of the number of vehicle trips that a proposed development will generate.

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Trip Generation for Smart Growth Projects

Robert J. Schneider, Susan L. Handy, and Kevan Shafizadeh

California encourages developers to pursue urban infill projects in order to achieve a variety of infrastructure efficiency and environmental goals. Since they are already surrounded by established developments, infill projects provide better opportunities for walking, bicycling, and public transit, and they encourage fewer automobile trips than new suburban developments. Nevertheless, developers often meet resistance when proposing infill projects.

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Pounds that Kill

Michael L. Anderson and Maximilian Auffhammer

Buying a car can be a stressful process, requiring choices based on quality, fit, and cost. When making this choice, we focus mainly on our own well-being and often ignore the negative effects our purchases may have on others. This illustrates the problem of externalities—public costs and benefits not reflected in the cost of a private choice.

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2017-05-26T21:41:23+00:00Categories: ACCESS 45, Fall 2014|Tags: |

Fuel-Efficiency Standards: Are Greener Cars Safer?

Mark Jacobsen

The United States has strengthened its fuel efficiency regulations several times in recent years in an effort to reduce the environmental, economic, and energy security costs associated with gasoline. These standards encourage auto­makers to increase fuel efficiency by using advanced technology and by manufacturing lighter, lower-horsepower vehicles. But are these new fuel-efficient vehicles safe?

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2017-05-26T21:41:31+00:00Categories: ACCESS 45, Fall 2014|Tags: , |

An Innovative Path to Sustainable Transportation

Daniel Sperling

Contrary to popular belief, the world is awash in fossil energy, much of which can be readily converted into fuels for our cars, trucks, and planes. We are not running out of fossil fuels. The abundance of fossil fuels means we are unlikely to see high fuel prices due to scarcity. Indeed, most analysts predict that future oil prices will not be much higher than today’s, apart from occasional peaks due, for example, to conflicts in the Middle East. Prices might even end up lower as new exploration and extraction technologies for shale oil, heavy oils, deep-sea oil, and oil sands make it cheaper and easier to extract fossil energy. Thus, we cannot depend on high oil prices to reduce transport energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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2017-05-26T21:41:39+00:00Categories: ACCESS 45, Fall 2014|Tags: , |